Discrete Dynamics -- The Web Map

The dynamics that is generated by the Hamiltonian (1.17) can
obviously be split into two parts, namely the
trivial
dynamics of a
free harmonic oscillator between two successive kicks, and the kick
dynamics itself. Because of the stroboscopic nature of the kick it makes
sense to consider the dynamic variables and at those times only
when kicks occur. Let

be the values of and immediately before the -th kick.
Then the discrete dynamics generated by (1.17)
is
given by the
POINCARÉ map^{1.2}

or

Starting at the phase space point , first the momentum is shifted by due to the kick; then the new point is submitted to harmonic rotation in phase space for a period of time of length . Figure 1.1 gives a graphical account of this dynamics of the map.

In the following I pay particular attention to the *resonance
cases*

It is just in these resonance cases that a stochastic web develops, as will be seen in section 1.2. In fact, webs with both translational and rotational symmetry can only occur for just a few special values of ; this is discussed in subsection 1.2.1. Due to this connection between stochastic webs and the map (1.21) in these particular cases of resonance, maps of this type are commonly called

it depends on the two parameters and .

I now briefly discuss the web map for some specific values of .
The case (i.e. ) corresponds to *cyclotron resonance*,
where the frequency of the kick coincides with the frequency of the
harmonic oscillator:

In the context of the original model system of a particle moving within an electromagnetic field (subsection 1.1.1), the -component of the particle position at times of kick is subject to uniform acceleration, as shown in figure 1.2.

For () the dynamics is similar to that of equation (1.26): the map
is given by

In this case of half-integer cyclotron resonance the particle's momentum at times of kick increases in quite the same way as for , but separately for odd and even ; the solution (1.28) can be obtained from equation (1.26) by successively reflecting the orbit points about the origin of phase space.

Because of their evident simplicity -- in particular, the dynamics is confined to one-dimensional lines in phase space and no two-dimensional web structures can arise -- I do not discuss the maps or any further.

For the dynamics becomes much more interesting, and complicated
structures in phase space can develop.
The most important example is the web map for (), the dynamics of
which
has been
sketched in figure 1.1:

The structures that evolve in phase space when is iterated for a large number of times are discussed in section 1.2, with emphasis laid on the cases .

- ... map
^{1.2} - Alternatively, and immediately
*after*the kicks could be considered. The resulting POINCARÉ map would be topologically conjugate to as given by equations (1.20).